Independence Day is celebrated by the people of India every year on 15th of August as a National Holiday to commemorate the independence of India from the Kingdom of Great Britain.

On 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, who had become the first Prime Minister of India that day, raised the Indian national flag above the Lahore Gate of the RedFort in Delhi.

India is a country where millions of people live together whether they belong to various religion, cultures or traditions and celebrate this special occasion with great joy. At this day, as being an Indian, we should feel proud and must take an oath to keep ourselves loyal and patriotic in order to save our motherland from any type of attack or humiliation.

Happy Independence Day

The color of our flag signifies:

Saffron: Saffron color represents courage and selflessness.

White: The white color in the Tiranga represents honesty, peace and purity. It highlights the importance of maintaining peace in the country.

Green: The green color of the flag represents faith and chivalry. It is a symbolism of prosperity, vibrancy and life.

Ashoka Chakra: The Ashoka Chakra or the Dharma Chakra (Wheel of Law) has 24 spokes and appears on the number of edicts of Ashoka.

Take a stand against evil, corruption & terrorism, for we belong to India, a nation of pride….!!!

Never forget the heroes who scarified their lives to bring up this glorious day to India.

In view of the hard battles of our freedom fighter we are currently ready to appreciate the opportunity and inhale natural air as per our wish. Getting free from the Britishers was truly an outlandish undertaking our fighter did with their consistent endeavors.


American Ways of Spoiling Education

Back in 2004-05 a web series called How-To-Do Girls started, featuring women in bikinis teaching calculus.

How-to-Do Girls tackle that notorious freshman weeder class. Playboy model, Jaime Lynn, and MIT Nuclear Engineering Graduate, Paige, use more than the black board to teach that perennial hardcore college subject, calculus. Paige & Jaime Lynn as your math teaching assistant give a whole new meaning to education. Bikini Calculus is entertainment but it’s also a real calculus tutorial. As a tutorial it helps students understand and remember the basic rules of calculus. Each rule is presented with a memory association. You can have a look at the video Bikini Calculus.

Though this video helped students to understand calculus in an easy way but it is not at all acceptable to teach students in such a way. This kind of videos will affect the mental health of students and they may not take education seriously. Such kind of nuisance will degrade the quality and value of education. The topic Calculus can also be related to some other concepts in the physical world such as concepts of calculus include motion, electricity, heat, light, harmonics, acoustics, astronomy, and dynamics. In fact, even advanced physics concepts including electromagnetism and Einstein`s theory of relativity use calculus. In the field of chemistry, calculus can be used to predict functions such as reaction rates and radioactive decay. Meanwhile, in biology, it is utilized to formulate rates such as birth and death rates. In economics, calculus is used to compute marginal cost and marginal revenue, enabling economists to predict maximum profit in a specific setting. In addition, it is used to check answers for different mathematical disciplines such as statistics, analytical geometry, and algebra.
These two ladies had set up a multimillion dollar business by selling such DVD`s of various mathematics concepts.

The DVD includes:

  • Intro to Bikini Calculus — overview of the concept of calculus
  • Prerequisites — some things you should learn before you try calculus
  • Constant Rule — the easiest way to do it
  • Power Rule — the all purpose get the job done rule
  • Constant Multiple Rule — what to do with extra stuff
  • Addition Rule — doing more than one term
  • Product Rule — I can’t separate them, what do I do now?
  • Quotient Rule — over, under, sideways, down
  • Reciprocal Rule — guys, pay attention to this
  • Exponential Rule — looks like the power rule but not quite
  • Logarithm — knock knock knock
  • Trigonometric Functions — I’ll always remember
  • Chain Rule — everyone’s favorite
  • Paige Behind the Scenes — Jacuzzi & pizza interview, on the set
  • Jaime Lynn Behind the Scenes — Jaime Lynn talks about dreams, Shoot Music Video, on the set
  • Bloopers — oops, do it again
  • Extras — short funny clips, photo galleries.
Such kind of stuff should not be entertained by educational authorities. Education is a pure thing it is the process of facilitating learning. Knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits of a group of people are transferred to other people, through storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, or research. During certain critical periods of childhood, the mind appears to be developing a “hardwire” for what the person will be aroused by or attracted to. Exposure to unhealthy sexual norms and attitudes during this critical period can result in the child developing a unhealthy sexual orientation. It distorts the normal personality development process and supplies misinformation about a child’s sexuality, sense of self, and body that leaves the child confused, changed, and damaged.

Why Engineers do not have strong technical knowledge…??

Padma Deshmukh, controller of exams, said, “Since the number of engineering colleges has gone up these days, the quality of students is declining. Those who don’t have engineering skills are also doing the engineering course.”

Hence it is observed that some of the students opting for engineering do not have a serious approach to complete their degree. Students may study engineering due to peer pressure while others may go for engineering because they do not have any other option. Students who come with this attitude in colleges are not able to study technically, they just want to get passing marks and some how get the degree certificate.

According to the results declared in 2013-14, out of 29,565 students from all affiliated colleges who appeared for the first semester exam only 10,245 have passed. That is just 35%.

Students are blaming on the tough curriculum and poor quality of teaching. However, according to teachers, with the increase in number of colleges, the quality of students opting for engineering is declining. Hence student’s attitude towards engineering is not right. Most of the students prefer to study a night before examination. In this case students refer only local author books; these books may or may not contain proper and full conceptual knowledge of the subject.

Reasons for poor technical knowledge of students:

  • The approach of “Last Night Engineering Study?”

Many at the high school and college level are particularly guilty of it, but staying up all night cramming for an exam has been shown to do very little good for test preparation or performance.

Not all but many of the local authors books do not contain conceptual knowledge about the subject. This may lead to incomplete or improper knowledge to students. Referring only local author books may not impair proper technically knowledge to students.

  • Not Making an Outline

If a student is not making outlines while studying or writing a paper, then the results most likely will not be the intended grade. There are many reasons to make an outline. It helps to keep track of large amounts of information, organize ideas, and present the class material in a logical way. Instead of trying to reread a textbook or write an essay from scratch, make an outline to organize thoughts and study more effectively.

  • Mugging up the topics

Students mug up on the exam day, somehow remember the stuffs and after writing them all those stuffs vanishes like smoke. a civil engineering students from pune claims that”Even without knowing practically how to design beams, columns etc, I scored 8 pointer in Structural Design. Now when we need to use the knowledge of structural design in 7th sem project, not only me but the so called toppers are bound to study all the topics again!!”

  • Repetition of question paper/pattern

As students know that the same paper pattern will be repeated in this semester, they study only for getting marks. Students will mug up the most repeated questions from last 5 years and will score their much needed 40 marks…!!

  • Every Assignment Feels the Same

Nearly every homework assignment and test question is a math problem. Only a few courses require creativity or offer hands-on experience.


Finally, when it’s all done and you come back home with an unused brain in your head but without any job in hand; the blame game begins. Your parents blame you for not studying, you blame your teacher for not teaching, your teacher blames the college for not providing resources, your college blames the University for not updating the syllabus and the game goes on and on. With a national survey claiming that only 11% engineers are employable, the Indian parents, who sent their wards for engineering thinking their bright kids will get a job as easy as child’s play, may have to spend some sleepless nights thinking if their decision was worth.

We need engineers!

Imparting technical education will provide a thrust to ‘Make in India’ concept.

Looking at the number of engineering colleges in India and the number of engineers coming out of these colleges, the questions that form in everyone’s minds are, “does India need so many engineers?” Are they all employable? The negativism brought forth by such questions has crippled engineering education in India.

In this global era, rather than focus on India, the question should be whether the world needs so many engineers. The answer is a big, “yes.” Is there a need for scientists? The answer is again, “yes.” The world needs in plenty well-equipped, talented graduates with the right attitude. There are job opportunities for those who have the potential. In addition, opportunities for self-employment are also plenty for innovative and energetic minds.

Technical Education plays a vital role in human resource development of the country by creating skilled manpower, enhancing industrial productivity and improving the quality of life of its people. Technical Education covers programs in engineering, technology, management, architecture, town planning, pharmacy, applied arts & crafts, hotel management and catering technology.

Current scenario

Our school education system offers combinations of courses in the higher secondary level such that a student by choosing these groups can pursue engineering or medicine, even though these two streams call for entirely different aptitudes. The ideal higher secondary system would orient the student towards evaluating their aptitude and choosing to pursue one of the two streams. This would ensure that the chosen stream matches their aptitude. This is not happening now.

In the absence of proper orientation in the system, parents and their wards follow an inappropriate procedure while selecting their branch of study in the college.
During counselling, we notice that the selection of a branch of study is based on the following:
(1) The most sought-after branch in counselling,
(2) The branch having good job opportunities as seen by the previous year placements,
(3) Parental pressure and
(4) Peer pressure.
This is not the right practice. The correct way will be to spend some time assessing one’s interest for a particular branch and check if it matches well with the aptitude one has and the chosen branch of study.

How to make the choice

There are some thumb rules to be followed in choosing an engineering education.

  • The interest of the candidate and his/her choice of branch should be the criteria for admission. •Every parent should orient the child towards finding out their natural interest and the aptitude for the particular subject or branch of study.
  • Parents should avoid deciding for the candidate.
  • For a strong-willed person, if the choice is made based on his/her liking and natural taste, then studying that branch will be the best thing rather than joining any other branch, for whatever reason.
  • It is not wise to join a branch of study because it is popular or because the job opportunities are high.
  • The choice of institution is also critical.

The other option is for the students to take the branch of study available in a reputed college and start liking that branch, plan well and work hard. What is critical is students’ interest in the branch of study and the efforts put in by them to equip themselves adequately enough during their studies.

Measures to Improve Access and Opportunity

Greater Career Awareness

Notwithstanding efforts over the years, students and their families need encouragement and access to information at a much earlier stage than has typically been provided, through exposure to role models who look like them, information about the kinds of jobs done by persons with preparation in engineering, and examples to dispel the idea that engineering is solitary work. And both students and parents need to know that engineering and technical jobs have been quite resistant to recession-related unemployment and that they enjoy some of the smallest pay gaps between males and females.

More Engineering and Technology in the Precollege Curriculum

Increased career awareness needs to be accompanied by increased access to engineering concepts and ideas.The framework emphasizes equitable opportunity to learn and personal identification with problems. The greatest challenge will be in providing equitable access to individuals in the classroom (i.e., teachers and/or visiting professionals) who can incorporate this into their teaching and support student learning.

Quality Education

Unless and until the structure of educational opportunity is addressed it will be very difficult for schools to provide quality education for all students. As it is, access to rigorous courses, good teaching, adequate facilities, and appropriate equipment correlate with socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic group membership, and poor and underrepresented minority students receive less of everything needed to successfully study STEM. Students at these schools need to have access to more courses as well as programs such as the National Math and Science Initiative’s Advanced Placement Training and Incentive Program (APTIP).

More After- and Out-of-School Experiences Connected to Engineering

Early efforts to increase the participation of females and underrepresented minorities in engineering education and careers started outside of school. Programs such as Expanding Your Horizons for female students and Mathematics, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) for minority students were established by university-level program advocates (e.g., Malcom et al. 1984). Programs for girls often emphasized the experiences and role model aspects of intervention, as well as interactions with parents to provide career information. Programs for minorities offered experiences as well as rigorous supplemental course content at a level needed for students intending to major in STEM fields. But just 19 percent of students have access to such programs (Change the Equation 2012). More efforts are needed to expand the opportunities to engage in science and engineering experiences after school and during summers. Communities must be engaged and relevant contexts created for students from different populations.

Targeted Research

Support is needed for research, experimentation, and evaluation that can point to effective practices and refinement of instructional strategies and policies to “fix the system.” The findings of such research can eventually reduce the need for interventions and support the creation of institutions that work for all.

Conclusion :

India is witnessing the age of science and technology. There is huge demand for technical education in modern age. The pattern of life evolving in this age is very much different from the one we would find in our society even some fifty years back. Technical Education imparts knowledge of specific trade, craft or profession.

Technical Education can meet the expanding demands of expanding society and to meet its multiplying demands. The industries, mechanized systems and scientific research centers all over the world prove beyond doubt that our tie with the past is snapped and instead of bare hands we must use machines and technological devices for all-round development and regeneration of human society.

Are we designing engineering curriculum scientifically?

Engineering is Hard!

What? My first day in college and I’m told it will be hard?

Engineering is a hard major but can provide you a lifetime of rewards if it matches your interests and talents.Engineering is hard, but so are athletics, music, religious observance, marriage, parenting, and many other popular worthwhile pursuits.

If we want our country and economy to get back on track we need to fix the education system for math and science related degrees. It’s simple really and everyone knows it. Growth happens when people build and sell things. In an age of high tech innovation those “growth” building blocks rely squarely on the skills acquired in a science, technology, math or engineering curriculum.

4 hours a day, 5 days a week, a professor stands up in front of a classroom and paraphrases sections from a book. After a few weeks of lectures and labs, the class is ready for its first test. A few days before the exam the libraries are packed. Students cram all of the formulas and anecdotes into their brains because in a few hours they will be responsible for regurgitating those same formulas onto a test. And once that test is finished, all of that information evaporates. Why? Because now the students need to focus on the next chapters and shortly thereafter they’ll have their next exam. By the next semester most of the learned information will go to waste because there was never any real practical experience applied to the information in the first place. Cram, regurgitate, next.

Learning from experience : David Drew a professor from foreign university, basically said to the class, “Here are some parts, here is how to make a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), and here are some circuits. Go build a firefighting robot that can autonomously navigate a maze and put out a fire.” What ensued was what all engineering programs should be like. Students had to figure things out on their own and when they had questions they would ask Mr. David. By the end of the class students had learned about resistors, transistors, tute-bot circuits, and an entire array of engineering concepts.Students learn these concepts by doing and not by sitting in some lecture hall taking notes.

Students are different learners then they were ten years ago. Education is what needs to change. Student’s today can’t learn the same way we did.

We need a motivating curriculum that enhances a student’s preparedness for life.

Innovation in the Classroom Helps Teachers Meet a Wide Range of Student Interests and Achievement Levels.

Teachers know that if students are unable to see the “real world” importance in a lesson, the instruction falls flat. Fully 94% of teachers across all grade levels say learning experiences that provide students with 21stCentury skills are absolutely essential (54%) or very important (40%) in impacting achievement.
Teachers identified two key ways of providing these kinds of relevant experiences:

1)  Differentiate assignments to, in effect, meet students “where they are” in terms of both personal interest and individual ability;

2)  Use technology and other materials to keep students engaged while teaching them the material they need to learn in order to advance academically.
These ideas were clearly reinforced by the survey findings.

P M Modi’s Make In India Campaign


Job Creation, enforcement to Secondary and Tertiary sector, Boosting national economy, Converting the India to a self-reliant country and to give the Indian economy global recognition.


• Make in India is an international marketing strategy, conceptualized by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 25 September 2014, Thursday, with an audience of CEOs that packed Delhi’s Vigyan Bhawan, where Mr. Modi launched his ambitious “Make in India” campaign.
• The campaign aims at turning the country into a global manufacturing hub by smoothening business processes and attracting foreign companies to set up factories in India and invest in the country’s infrastructure.
• Foster innovation.
• Enhance skill development.
• Protect intellectual property.
• The focus, on creating jobs and helping the “poor reach the middle class faster”.

The Step of a Lion

The logo is a striding lion made of cogs, symbolizing manufacturing, strength and national pride.

Here are 10 key points from PM Modi’s speech:

1) FDI gets a new lingo:

For the world foreign direct investment (FDI) is an opportunity, but FDI is also a responsibility for the people of India, the prime minister said. My definition of FDI for the people of India is “First Develop India…for foreigners, it is an opportunity,”he said. We have to create opportunities of employment, he added.

2) Do not treat India as a market:

PM Modi said global businesses have always viewed India as a big market, but Indians lack purchasing power. Investors will lose an opportunity, if they continue to look at India as a market, he said. The Prime Minister said the faster people move out of poverty, the faster India’s purchasing power will grow.

3) Do not leave India:

Trust forced Indian companies to leave the country in the last few years, PM Modi said. “A trust was broken that when a policy will be changed, when CBI will come…this is what I heard from all you,” PM Modi said. We do not want any industrialist being forced to leave India, he added.

4) Government to ensure capital preservation:

Investors first want security of their investment, followed by growth, while profit is the last priority, PM Modi said. The new government will ensure the preservation of capital, he said.

5) Improving the ease of doing business a priority:

According to World Bank, India ranks 134 out of 189 countries in terms of the ease of doing business. PM Modi today said that his government will see that the country climbs quickly to 50th position on the list.

6) India best destination to invest in Asia:

The world is looking at Asia. I do not have to waste time to invite…I need to give the address, PM Modi said. Only India has the unique combination of democracy, demographic dividend and demand, he added.

7) Easy governance, effective governance:

The “Digital India” push is aimed at effective governance, PM Modi said. Industry does not come when there are too many incentive schemes. A development & growth oriented environment is need, he added.

8) Skilled manpower:

India needs manpower according to requirements and if we can develop the right skills, we can achieve sustainable development, PM Modi said.

9) Look East, but Link West:

India needs to pursue the Look East policy, but also absorb the best practices of the western world, PM Modi said.

10) Infrastructure:

India needs better infrastructure for further growth, the PM said, adding there is a need for not only highways, but also i-highways (information highways). The country needs electric, water, gas and optical fibre grids, he added.

Five challenges that the ‘Make in India’ could face:

1. Creating healthy business environment will be possible only when the administrative machinery is efficient. India has been very stringent when it comes to procedural and regulatory clearances. A business-friendly environment will only be created if India can signal easier approval of projects and set up hassle-free clearance mechanism.
2. India should also be ready to tackle elements that adversely affect competitiveness of manufacturing. To make the country a manufacturing hub the unfavorable factors must be removed. India should also be ready to give tax concessions to companies who come and set up unit in the country.
3. India’s small and medium-sized industries can play a big role in making the country take the next big leap in manufacturing. India should be more focused towards novelty and innovation for these sectors. The government has to chart out plans to give special sops and privileges to these sectors.
4. India’s make in India campaign will be constantly compared with China’s ‘Made in China’ campaign. The dragon launched the campaign at the same day as India seeking to retain its manufacturing prowess. India should constantly keep up its strength so as to outpace China’s supremacy in the manufacturing sector.
5. India must also encourage high-tech imports, research and development (R&D) to upgrade ‘Make in India’ give edge-to-edge competition to the Chinese counterpart’s campaign. To do so, India has to be better prepared and motivated to do world class R&D. The government must ensure that it provides platform for such research and development.

What you think about “Make in India” Campaign and how would you like to contribute to this campaign.

How You Can Use Active Learning To Transform Your Classroom ?

One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it– you have no Certainties until you try.

The past decade has seen an explosion of interest among college faculty in the teaching methods variously grouped under the terms ‘active learning’. I provide below a survey of a wide variety of active learning techniques which can be used to supplement rather than replace lectures. I am not advocating complete abandonment of lecturing. The lecture is a very efficient way to present information but use of the lecture as the only mode of instruction presents problems for both the instructor and the students. There is a large amount of research attesting to the benefits of active learning.

Active Learning is, in short, anything that students do in a classroom other than merely passively listening to an instructor’s lecture. This includes everything from listening practices which help the students to absorb what they hear, to short writing exercises in which students react to lecture material, to complex group exercises in which students apply course material to “real life” situations and/or to new problems. Active learning techniques employ more formally structured groups of student’s assigned complex tasks, such as multiple-step exercises, research projects, or presentations

Active learning is a model of instruction that focuses the responsibility of learning on learners. It was popularized in the 1990s by its appearance on the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) report. They cite literature which indicates that to learn, students must do more than just listen: They must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. It relates to the three learning domains referred to as knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA. In particular, students must engage in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Active learning engages students in two aspects – doing things and thinking about the things they are doing.

Numerous studies have shown that introducing active learning activities (such as simulations, games, contrasting cases, labs,) before, rather than after lectures or readings, results in deeper learning, understanding, and transfer. The degree of instructor guidance students need while being “active” may vary according to the task and its place in a teaching unit. In an active learning environment learners are immersed in experiences within which they are engaged in meaning-making inquiry, action, imagination, invention, interaction, hypothesizing.

Techniques of Active Learning

These exercises are particularly useful in providing the instructor with feedback concerning student understanding and retention of material. Some are especially designed to encourage students’ exploration of their own attitudes and values. Many are designed to increase retention of material presented in lectures and texts.

  1. The “One Minute Paper” – This is a highly effective technique for checking student progress, both in understanding the material and in reacting to course material. Ask students to take out a blank sheet of paper, pose a question either specific or open-ended, and give them one minute to respond. Some sample questions include: “What is “scientific realism”?”, “What is the activation energy for a chemical reaction?”, “What is the difference between replication and transcription?”, and so on. Another good use of the minute paper is to ask questions like “What was the main point of today’s class material?” This tells you whether or not the students are viewing the material in the way you envisioned

  2. Reading Quiz – Clearly, this is one way to coerce students to read assigned material! Active learning depends upon students coming to class prepared. The reading quiz can also be used as an effective measure of student comprehension of the readings (so that you may gauge their level of sophistication as readers). Further, by asking the same sorts of questions on several reading quizzes, you will give students guidance as to what to look for when reading assigned text.

  3. Clarification Pauses – This is a simple technique aimed at fostering “active listening”. Throughout a lecture, particularly after stating an important point or defining a key concept, stop, let it sink in, and then (after waiting a bit!) ask if anyone needs to have it clarified. You can also circulate around the room during these pauses to look at student notes, answer questions, etc. Students who would never ask a question in front of the whole class will ask questions during a clarification pause as you move about the room.

  4. Response to a demonstration or other teacher centered activity – The students are asked to write a paragraph that begins with: I was surprised that … I learned that … I wonder about … This allows the students to reflect on what they actually got out of the teachers’ presentation. It also helps students realize that the activity was designed for more than just entertainment.

  5. Active Review Sessions – In the traditional class review session the students ask questions and the instructor answers them. Students spend their time copying down answers rather than thinking about the material. In an active review session the instructor posses’ questions and the students work on them in groups. Then students are asked to show their solutions to the whole group and discuss any differences among solutions proposed.

  6. Debates – Formal debates provide an efficient structure for class presentations when the subject matter easily divides into opposing views or ‘Pro’/‘Con’ considerations. Students are assigned to debate teams, given a position to defend, and then asked to present arguments in support of their position on the presentation day. The opposing team should be given an opportunity to rebut the argument(s) and, time permitting, the original presenters asked to respond to the rebuttal. This format is particularly useful in developing argumentation skills (in addition to teaching content).

Why is active learning important?

The amount of information retained by students declines substantially after ten Minutes (Thomas,1972). Research comparing lecture versus discussion techniques was summarized in The report Teaching and Learning in the Classroom prepared by the National Center for Research to Improve Post secondary Teaching and Learning (McKeachie, et. al., 1987).

The review Concluded that

  •  In those experiments involving measures of retention of information after the end of a course, measures of problem solving, thinking, attitude change, or motivation
  • For further learning, the results tend to show differences favoring discussion methods over lecture. Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers.
  • They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.

What obstacles or barriers prevent faculty from using active learning strategies?

Six commonly mentioned obstacles to using active learning strategies include:

1. You cannot cover as much course content in the time available;
2. Devising active learning strategies takes too much pre-class preparation;
3. Large class sizes prevents implementation of active learning strategies;
4. Most instructors think of themselves as being good lecturers;
5. There is a lack of materials or equipment needed to support active learning approaches;
6. Students resist non-lecture approaches.

How can we overcome these barriers ?

1. Admittedly, the use of active learning strategies reduces the amount of available lecture time that can be devoted to content coverage. Faculty who regularly use active learning strategies typically find other ways to ensure that students learn assigned course content (e.g., using reading and writing assignments, through their classroom examinations, etc.)

2 The amount of pre-class preparation time needed to implement active learning strategies will be greater than that needed to “recycle old lectures;” it will not necessarily take any more time than that needed to create thorough and thoughtful new lectures.

3. Large class size may restrict the use of certain active learning strategies (e.g., it is difficult to involve all students in discussion in groups larger than 40) but certainly not all. For example, large classes can be divided into small groups for discussion activities, writing assignments can be read and critiqued by students instead of the instructor, etc.

4. Most instructors see themselves as good lecturers and therefore see no reason to change. Though lecturing is potentially a useful means of transmitting information, teaching does not equal learning; this can be seen clearly in the painful disparity between what we think we have effectively taught, and what students indicate they have learned on the examination papers that we grade.

5. The lack of materials or equipment needed to support active learning can be a barrier to the use of some active learning strategies but certainly not all. For example, asking students to summarize in writing the material they have read or to form pairs to evaluate statements or assertions does not require any equipment.

6. Students resist non-lecturing approaches because active learning alternatives provide a sharp contrast to the very familiar passive listening role to which they have become accustomed. With explicit instruction in how to actively participate and learn in less-traditional modes, students soon come to favor the new approaches.


The sort of teaching we propose requires that we encourage active learning and that we become knowledgeable about the ways in which our students hear, understand, interpret, and integrate ideas.